History of Liberty
In the early 1800s, American settlers began to arrive in the Liberty area.
By 1822 the settlement had grown to become the County seat for Clay County. Incorporated in 1829, Liberty is the second oldest incorporated town west of the Mississippi River.
The Liberty Landing was located along the Missouri River. During the 1830s, the Liberty Landing was one of several steamboat docks located along the Missouri River. As Liberty was the “jumping off” point for the frontier and westward expansionists, the Liberty Landing was a disembarking location for merchandise and early settlers for those coming from St. Louis and other points from the east. The steamboats would fire a cannon when they were several miles away from Liberty in order to give merchants and the town’s people time to reach the dock before the boat arrived. During this decade, as many as 5 “steamers” would move up the river daily and at least one would dock at the Liberty Landing.
The Liberty Jail, built in 1833, is known for its most famous prisoner, Joseph Smith, first president and prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints. In October 1838, Governor Lilburn Boggs ordered the arrest of Mormon prophet Joseph Smith Jr. at the far west settlement in Caldwell County. Immediately after the conclusion of the Mormon War, Smith and other Mormon leaders were incarcerated at the Liberty jail for the winter of 1839. Although Alexander Doniphan led a force of Missouri volunteers ordered to capture the leaders, he defended Joseph Smith in trial and won him a change in venue. While en route to their new venue, Smith and his followers escaped and left Missouri for the new Mormon settlement in Nauvoo, Illinois. From the late 1840s through the 1860s, an exodus of more than 70,000 Mormons passed through on their way to their “New Zion” in Salt Lake City, Utah.
William Jewell College, one of the oldest private colleges in Missouri, was founded in 1849 with a $10,000 donation from Dr. William Jewell of Columbia, Missouri. There was also the Liberty Female Institute (also known as the Liberty Ladies College) on the opposite side of town that provided a comparable education for women.
The Clay County Savings Bank was the site of the first successful daylight bank robbery on February 13, 1866 - allegedly committed by the James-Younger Gang.
The Interurban Railroad ran through Liberty, from Excelsior Springs to Kansas City, beginning in 1913 to 1933. Several trains stopped each day at the depot located on Mill Street.
From 1943 to 1945 during World War II, a German prisoner of war camp was set up at a turkey farm. The prisoners stayed in turkey laying houses that were adapted for living quarters. Approximately 600 prisoners were housed in this location. The prisoners were transported to areas farms to work and produce crops for the local economy and war effort.
Since 2005, the National Arbor Day Foundation has recognized Liberty’s commitment to the management of its cpommunity forest with the TreeCity designation.
To become a Tree City USA, a community must meet certain standards such as having a tree board or department, a tree care ordinance, a comprehensive community forestry program with a budget of at least $2 per capita, and an Arbor Day observance.
In 2007, Liberty was designated a Preserve America community.The Preserve America program is a White House effort to encourage and support communities that preserve and promote America’s cultural and natural heritage.
Residents have long known that the City of Liberty, Mo., is a great place to live. In 2011, two nationally respected publications let the secret out. Family Circle Magazine ranked Liberty as one of the top three places for families. According to a Family Circle press release, “the communities featured in the magazine’s annual roundup of perfect places to call home combine affordable housing, good neighbors, green spaces, strong public school systems and giving spirits.
In that same year, CNN / Money Magazine named Liberty the 7th Best Place to Live. Through a long list of statistics used in the ranking, Liberty fared rather well in a number of areas when compared to the “Best Places” average. Among other statistics, Liberty:
- enjoys a higher job growth in the past 10 years;
- has a lower median home price;
- recorded better reading and math scores;
- has better air quality index; and
- has shorter commute times
Today, Liberty continues to enjoy both residential, commercial development while also maintaining it’s strong sense of history. Liberty is home to 5 local historic districts, 7 districts and 7 individual properties on the National Register of Historic Places, a thriving downtown historic Square and surrounding area, 3 museums and many notable sites of interest.